Among the chemicals used in each farm, not the least is copper sulfate, which is the crystalline hydrate of copper sulfate or copper sulphate. This substance is poisonous to humans, but it is widely used in various fields of industry and agriculture.
Brief description of copper sulphate
Copper sulfate (II) (copper sulfate) (CuSO₄) in the mineral nomenclature is known under several names: chalcantite, butyl, chalcianite, etc. It is characterized as a non-flammable, fire and explosive substance. Has high hygroscopicity. It is highly soluble in water, alcohol and hydrochloric acid. Getting into a moist environment, 5 water molecules are added, turning into copper sulfate (CuSO4 · 5H2O) – this is the crystalline hydrate of copper sulfate. It consists of bright blue crystals that dissolve easily in water. In a dry environment, the crystalline hydrates lose water and turn into white or white-gray powder.
Kuporos is a common (trivial) name for some sulfuric acid metal salts (copper, iron, zinc, etc.). In a systematic nomenclature, the trivial names of such compounds are considered more convenient, rational and accepted throughout the world.
Principle of action of copper sulfate
Copper sulfate when exposed to a plant performs a dual role.
1. A medicinal preparation in the composition of microfertilizers and therapeutic solutions for plants
- Copper is part of the enzymes responsible for oxidation-reduction processes occurring in plant organs;
- participates in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, which increase the resistance of plants to the negative effects of fungal-bacterial infections;
- the introduction of copper into the organs of plants promotes an increase in the content of sugars in root crops, berries and fruits, as well as protein and fats in oilseeds, starch in potatoes, that is, positively affects the quality of the fruit and simultaneously increases the yield of crops.
2. Chemical preparation with contact-destructive effect
- Copper ions destroy the spore shields and the mycelium itself;
- interact with enzyme complexes of a pathogenic cell; cause irreversible changes in the protoplasm of the cellular substance and the death of mold fungi and rot, bacterial and other diseases;
- the drug is effective against gnawing and sucking pests;
- the preparation is toxic for use on large areas; in connection with the toxicity is recommended for point application in small areas of suburban and local areas.
Period of application of copper sulphate
Copper vitriol is too acidic and has a burning effect. Therefore, it is used for the processing of garden crops and berries:
- before budding, so as to protect them from chemical burns;
- dissolved copper sulphate, applied to the bark of trees, does not harm the plant and is practically not washed away by rain;
- after a complete fall of leaves.
Spraying with copper sulfate over not fallen autumn leaves contributes to the ingress of excessive amounts of copper into the soil. It accumulates in the soil and enters the plants. In high amounts, it breaks the metabolic processes that occur in plants during the growing season, causing the leaves and ovaries to fall off.
Some gardeners and gardeners use weak solutions of copper sulfate (1-1.5% solution) for processing vegetative plants during the active pest action (epiphytotinic reproduction and mass yield of larvae). Spraying is disposable. The treatment is carried out not less than 10-20 days before harvesting.
Blue spraying is not used during the growing season on vegetable crops, replacing it with a Bordeaux mixture.
Rules for processing plants with a solution of copper sulfate
When using copper sulfate for the treatment of plants, it is necessary to strictly observe the recommended dosage of the drug in solution (a solution prepared “by eye” can be burned by plants).
For the treatment of plants in the early spring period, 1% solution of copper sulfate is used on young shrubs and trees and 3% on old ones with thick bark. When processing crops, it is important to observe quantitative rates of solution consumption per plant.
Early spring treatment with copper sulfate is carried out in the first ten days of March (before the beginning of swelling of the kidneys) at an average daily air temperature of +5 … +6 ° C. In autumn the treatment is repeated, but the preparations must be changed to avoid accumulation of copper in the soil.
The soil is disinfected with 3-5% solution of copper sulfate, distributing it with a sprayer over the surface, followed by sealing in the soil. The treatment is carried out once every 3-5 years with compulsory compost or compost.
Before the treatment of trees and berries, they carry out all sanitary preparations: remove the old bark, as well as branches, diseased, withered, growing inside the crown and bushes. Handle the disinfectant solutions of slices and wounds, and after drying, paint over or cover with garden fumes.
Copper sulfate is incompatible with other preparations in the preparation of tank mixtures.
The effectiveness of a solution of copper sulfate increases with fine-dispersed processing of plants.
When treating plants or soil spraying is carried out in protective clothing, which must be changed after work, showered or washed with face and hands with soap.
Preparation of copper sulphate solution
To prepare a solution of copper sulfate, use glass or plastic dishes. The easiest way to prepare a solution for 10 liters of water. The solution is used on the day of preparation. Do not mix with other drugs, except lime.
A weighed amount of the preparation is poured into the container and, when stirring, 1 liter of hot water is poured (the water temperature does not exceed 45-50 ° C). In cold and warm water, vitriol dissolves slowly. The solution turns out muddy. It is prevented until the crystals of vitriol dissolve completely. In 1 liter of the prepared concentrate, add 9 liters of hot water. The working solution of copper sulfate is allowed to cool, stir well again, filter from the insoluble impurities and begin treatment of plants (Table 1).
Do not prepare a solution of copper sulfate on a gas burner or electric stove!
Table 1. Weight ratios of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water
|Concentration of solution,%||g / 10 liters of water|
Consumption of copper sulphate solution for cultivation of orchard and berry plantations
When processing fruit and berry crops it is very important not to “pour” the plant with a solution of copper sulfate, but sprinkle, and the smaller the drops, the better the treatment will be. Flowing from the plants with large droplets, the solution only aggravates the soil state, but does not correct the situation.
Based on the results of long-term observations of gardeners, averaged quantities of copper sulfate solutions were derived for optimal flow per tree. Depending on the age of the crop, the following data were obtained:
- on a young tree before the age of 3, the consumption of a solution of copper sulfate is up to 2 liters;
- with the onset of active branching at 3-4 years of age, the expenditure increases to 3 liters per tree;
- for a 4-6 year old tree with a crown formed, the solution consumption is 4 liters;
- an adult, fruit-bearing tree is treated with 6 liters of a solution of copper sulfate;
- for the processing of bushes of fruit and berry crops, the consumption of the solution is up to 1.5 liters per bush;
- for disinfection of the soil, regardless of the concentration of the solution, use 2 l / sq. m. m area.
In the greenhouse or on the beds, the ground is disinfected with a 0.5-1.0% solution of copper sulfate, and 3-5% solution is used for open soil in the garden.
Spraying with copper sulfate (blue spraying) is carried out throughout the crown and the tree bark. In autumn, spraying is repeated, but replacing copper sulfate with other preparations, so as not to accumulate copper in the root layer of the soil.
Protection of garden and berry crops from pests and diseases
Early spring and late autumn spraying with copper sulfate destroys up to 60-70% of larvae remaining for wintering, adult pests, mycelium and fungal spores, and other diseases. Treatments promote the entry of copper to plant organs and remove chlorosis.
Spraying with copper sulfate is effective in the garden and berry against scab, spotting, moniliosis, coccomicosis, phyllosticosis, chlorosis, exanthema, rust, rot, leaf curl, ascohitosis, powdery mildew and other diseases.
When planting seedlings for disinfection of the root system from fungal and bacterial infections, the roots are lowered for 1 to 5 minutes in a 1% solution of copper sulfate. Longer disinfection can burn young roots.
You can buy copper vitriol in specialized stores and other outlets.
Note! On the package of copper sulfate there is a fairly detailed recommendation for dissolution, use and purposes of carrying out plant treatments. Use of the drug should be carried out in strict accordance with these recommendations.