Apple growth stages
Tree Fruit Growth Stages
The beginning of the phase of growth and development of apple trees depends on the variety, agrotechnics and natural conditions. From the duration and intensity of lighting, the rate of increase or decrease in air temperature, from its humidity and other environmental conditions over the years, the rate of transmission of phenophases may change. With high humidity of air and soil, the vegetative period lasts longer, and with a lack of moisture, it shrinks.
Vegetative and flower buds are not blossomed at the same time, first vegetative buds swell, then kidney scales burst and a greenish cone appears, the denticles of the leaves protrude and as a result a full leaf develops. In the second half of the vegetative period, the buds formed in the axils of the leaves terminate. At this time, shoots begin to accumulate a stock of substances, which is necessary for wintering and development for the next year. The way the shoot will develop is affected not only by the number and size of the kidneys, but also by the growth conditions of the plant and its nutrition throughout the entire growing season. The apple tree has weakly developed shoots, so this fruit tree is laid fruit buds.
Apple shoots grow approximately 70-90 days, it depends on the area of growth and on the natural conditions. Fruit buds are located in the axils of the leaves, they can be lateral or apical. First, a cover scales are formed, then pistils and stamens are formed – the internal organs of the flower. The apple tree buds are laid for three months. The period of formation of flower buds in the spring for the next year is coming to an end.
The entire process of growing flower buds begins with swelling, and ends with a fully opened flower. Kidneys on the same tree bloom unevenly, so it can bloom for several days. Weather conditions significantly affect the duration of flowering. The fastest flowering is completed in a hot and dry spring than in a cold and protracted spring. The process of fertilization in a flower can only be present at a favorable temperature.
By the end of spring – the beginning of summer, trees do not live at the expense of accumulated nutrients, but begin to absorb them from the soil. It is necessary to provide them with proper irrigation, to introduce mineral and organic fertilizers, to regulate the thermal regime of the soil by mulching and watering.
The growth of the aboveground and underground parts ceases by the second half of the summer, the trees are at rest. Root growth is intensified in late autumn, and the increase in the aerial part stops. After the fall of the fall, a period of rest begins, which in turn is divided into 3 phases: initial rest, natural or deep rest and forced rest. If in a phase of deep dormancy the plant is moved to hothouse conditions – it will still not come out of this period. Duration of rest is an important economic and biological property of a plant. The deeper and more stable the rest – the less surprises you will encounter when working with a tree. Deep peace helps plants survive severe frosts.
In winter, trees can show some vital activity even during cold weather, and not just during thaws. During the winter, the accumulated supply of nutrients decreases, moisture loss occurs through the cover tissues of the branches and trunk. With a strong wind in cold weather, the loss of moisture can be so strong that it will ruin not only the branches, but the tree itself. It is best to give due attention to the provision of wood with nutrients and moisture in the autumn period.
See the first weeks of the apple tree from seed on video: